Our evidence-based analysis of Phenylpiracetam features unique references to scientific papers and anecdotal reports.

What Is Phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam is a powerful synthetic stimulant nootropic that may enhance memory, cognition, mood, and physical function.‍[1]

Phenylpiracetam is a modified version of piracetam developed at the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1983. It was created as a treatment for the prolonged stress experienced by cosmonauts on extended space missions.‍[2]

Though human research on phenylpiracetam is limited to a small number of Russian studies, it has been shown to help restore neurological functions and daily living activities to post-stroke patients,‍[3] and improve depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in patients with organic brain lesions.‍[4]

Phenylpiracetam was sold by prescription in Russia under the name Phenotropil until 2017. Production was discontinued due to conflicts between Phenotropil inventor Valentina Akhapkina and Russian pharmaceutical company Valenta, which produced the drug. A newly-formed company called Vira Innfarm will produce the drug in the future.‍[5]

In North America and other parts of the world, phenylpiracetam is widely used off-label as a nootropic, believed by many to enhance memory, focus, productivity, and physical stamina.

Phenylpiracetam has not been approved for any use by the US Food and Drug Administration and is unregulated in the US, where it can be legally sold and purchased. It can not be legally sold in Canada but may be legally imported and used there.

The World Anti-Doping Agency has banned phenylpiracetam because of its stimulant properties and its ability to help users tolerate extreme cold.‍[6]

Benefits and Effects of Phenylpiracetam

Memory and Cognitive Enhancement

Clinical trials show that phenylpiracetam improved cognition in stroke patients‍[7] and patients with organic brain lesions.‍[8]

While there is no documented research on how phenylpiracetam affects young, healthy individuals, many users report that it makes them alert, motivated, and productive.‍[9]‍[10]

Some users say it particularly enhances memory, bringing back memories from many years ago.‍[11]

Animals studies indicate that phenylpiracetam has anti-amnesic properties.‍[12]‍[13]

Energy Booster

Phenylpiracetam is known to act as a psychostimulant, which may be due to its chemical resemblance to phenethylamine substances like Adderall.

The extent of phenylpiracetam’s energizing effect on humans has not been studied, but animal testing confirms that it increases locomotor activity.‍[14]

A 2015 patent application for phenylpiracetam’s use as a sleep disorder treatment says tests on rats indicated the compound’s ability to combat sleepiness and improve motivation is stronger than that of methylphenidate and amphetamine.‍[15]

Many user self-reports indicate that phenylpiracetam’s stimulant effects are similar to those of modafinil, decreasing fatigue, and improving productivity and social fluency.‍[16]

Other users say its effects are similar to those of dextroamphetamine.‍[17]

Phenylpiracetam is included on WADA’s list of banned stimulants.‍[18]

Anxiety Reducer and Antidepressant

Animal studies suggest that phenylpiracetam can act as an antidepressant and anxiolytic, preventing anxiety and fear response while increasing locomotion and exploratory behavior in mice.‍[19]

Though there are no documented human studies on this aspect of phenylpiracetam, user reports confirm significant antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects.

Former Russian cosmonaut Aleksandr Serebrov, who took phenylpiracetam during his 197-day space voyage, said it was prescribed for its ability to enhance the mind and body’s performance under high stress. Serebov described phenylpiracetam as an “equalizer of the whole organism” and “completely excluding impulsiveness and irritability, inevitable in the conditions of high nervous tension of space flight.‍[20]

How It Works

Phenylpiracetam’s chemical structure is the same as piracetam, with an additional phenyl group attached. The phenyl group increases phenylpiracetam’s ability to dissolve in fats, oils, and lipids, enhancing its absorption within the body.‍[21] This property may explain why phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and how it crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily and efficiently.

Phenylpiracetam is fast-acting, detectable in the brain within 30 minutes of ingestion. It has a half-life of 2–3 hours.

In the brain, phenylpiracetam has several mechanisms of action, most of which involve stimulating the production of various neurotransmitters.

It acts as an ampakine, increasing levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by stimulating AMPA receptors. This action is associated with improved cognitive function‍[22] and may play a significant role in phenylpiracetam’s ability to enhance memory, focus, and overall cognition.

Animal studies showed that phenylpiracetam also increases extracellular dopamine levels by activating the dopaminergic system and acting as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor.‍[23] Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter associated with reward, motivation, memory, attention, and the regulation of emotions and body movements. Increased dopamine levels are believed to be responsible, at least partly, for phenylpiracetam’s positive effects on motivation, mood, and focus.

Dopamine is also a direct precursor of the stimulatory neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and fat and sugar levels in the blood. These effects are thought to be related to phenylpiracetam’s energy and stamina boosting capability.

Like other racetam-type nootropics, phenylpiracetam also increases acetylcholine production, sometimes referred to as “the learning neurotransmitter” because it is closely associated with all aspects of cognition. The brain uses choline to produce acetylcholine and may quickly deplete its stores when taking racetams, which is why supplemental choline is generally suggested to be taken with phenylpiracetam.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage

A typical phenylpiracetam dose ranges from 100–250 mg per dose, taken with meals, up to three times a day. It is not recommended to exceed the maximum dosage of 750 mg per day.‍[24]

New users are advised to start at the lower end of the dosage range and increase if necessary.

It is widely but not universally reported by users that tolerance to phenylpiracetam’s effects may develop relatively quickly; user self-reports suggest that tolerance is limited to phenylpiracetam’s energizing and physical stamina properties.‍[25]

Many users advocate cycling the phenylpiracetam or taking it as an occasional “booster” as needed rather than taking it continuously.‍[26]‍[27]

Nootropic Stacks with Phenylpiracetam

Here is an example of how phenylpiracetam can be combined with other nootropics for enhanced effects.


As Needed for Studying/Workouts/Tests

This stack may be especially suitable for students or athletes. A healthy balanced daily routine while saving the powerful effects of phenylpiracetam for when it is needed most.

Benefits may include enhanced motivation, focus, energy, a reduced need for sleep, increased stamina, and improved mood.

Side Effects of Phenylpiracetam

Like other nootropics in the racetam class, there are few reported side effects from supplementing phenylpiracetam at the recommended dosages.

The most commonly reported side effect is headaches, which is typical of most racetams, and may be a sign that additional choline should be supplemented.‍[28]‍[29]

Some users report unpleasant effects the day after taking phenylpiracetam, including irritability and brain fog.‍[30]

Others say that taking high doses of phenylpiracetam continuously over a prolonged period can result in difficulty sleeping, depression, and emotional instability.‍[31]

Where to Buy Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam can be ordered online from PureNootropics.net. They are one of our trusted suppliers for nootropics as their batches are tested for purity by third-party labs.

Always stick to reputable vendors when buying nootropics.

Closing Thoughts

Phenylpiracetam is a powerful drug with an intriguing history and an impressive list of potential benefits.

Initially developed for use by Soviet cosmonauts on long space voyages, it’s known to be a potent stimulant that can help users tolerate extreme cold. It was prescribed in Russia as a general tonic for more than a decade. It’s believed by many to boost mood and motivation, improve memory and focus, and enhance general cognition.

Its energizing and stamina-producing properties are intense, fast-acting, and effective enough to land it on WADA’s list of banned stimulants.

Many users say it gives them a powerful cognitive boost and makes them intensely productive, fiercely focused, and extremely motivated.

There are few documented side effects, and it’s readily available at reasonable prices.

There is little available documented research on how phenylpiracetam affects humans, so most evidence is based on anecdotal reports.

Its effects appear to vary considerably from user to user. User self-reports suggest tolerance to its energizing and physical stamina effects may build quickly. Though most users experience little to no side effects, others say it leaves them with a definite “day after” syndrome that includes lethargy, irritability, and brain fog.

Taken responsibly, with close attention to recommended dosages, cycling and stacking phenylpiracetam may provide a significant physical and cognitive boost.


Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

This page was last updated on July 16, 2021.